Fractional antedating goal response

21 Aug

Previous reviews on neuropathology of AD suggest distributed changes in brain structure and function comprising temporal, frontoparietal, and default mode networks (Buckner et al., 2005; Bokde et al., 2009; Seeley et al., 2009; Browndyke et al., 2013; Radanovic et al., 2013).

These widespread neuronal changes suggest the importance of neuroimaging studies to investigate the overlap between neural networks rehabilitated by the training procedure and those affected in AD. Hippocampal subfield volumes correlate with memory training benefit in subjective memory impairment. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.20 Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Erickson, K.

Detailed investigation of the data suggests that training in persons at risk of developing AD mainly improves compensatory mechanisms and partly restores the affected functions. Training of attentional control in mild cognitive impairment with executive deficits: results from a double-blind randomised controlled study.

While current neuroimaging studies are quite helpful in identifying the mechanisms underlying cognitive training, the data calls for future multi-modal neuroimaging studies with focus on multi-domain cognitive training, network level connectivity, and individual differences in response to training. doi: 10.3233/JAD-2011-100996 Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Gagnon, L.

Training programs must ideally favor the rehabilitation/normalization mechanisms and ensure that the compensatory mechanisms do not negatively impact the intact functions through sharing resources (Behrmann et al., 2005).

There have been a few efforts to examine changes in brain function and structure in response to cognitive training in AD. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20718 Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Engvig, A., Fjell, A.

There has been increasing behavioral evidence demonstrating training-related improvement in cognitive performance in early stages of AD (Cipriani et al., 2006; Barnes et al., 2009; Kinsella et al., 2009; Li et al., 2011; Gagnon and Belleville, 2012; Herrera et al., 2012; Moro et al., 2012; Rovner et al., 2012; Valdes et al., 2012; Gaitán et al., 2013; Greenaway et al., 2013; Reijnders et al., 2013).

While these studies provide important insight about the efficacy of cognitive training, neuroimaging studies are crucial to pinpoint changes in brain structure and function associated with cognitive training.

It has been shown that cognitive training can reduce age differences in ventral and dorsal prefrontal activation (Erickson et al., 2007) and decrease neocortical brain activity observed with functional MRI (Brehmer et al., 2011), and increase resting cerebral blood flow to the default-mode network and central executive network observed with perfusion MRI (Mozolic et al., 2010; Chapman et al., 2013) in older adults.

These findings provide evidence for functional plasticity in old age and suggest a mixed pattern of increased and decreased activation in response to training in healthy older adults. doi: 10.1002/hbm.21370 Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Engvig, A., Fjell, A.